Emperor PenguinLatin name: Aptenodytes Forsteri,
Conservsation status: near threatened (population is stable)
The Emperor is the largest of all penguins, standing as tall as four feet. Males withstand the Antarctic weather for up to two months without eating—keeping the eggs warm in a feathered pouch on their feet. Females travel up to 50 miles a day to bring food to the newly-hatched chicks.
In 50 years, the mean temperature of western Antarctica has risen nearly 3 °C—more than any other region—reducing the extent and thickness of winter ice. The Emperor Penguin is dependent on the ice for breeding, raising chicks and moulting. Less sea ice decreases zooplankton (krill) which feed on algae that grow on the underside of the ice. Krill are an important part of the food web for the Emperor and other Antarctic marine species.
Other animals at risk
Almost all Black Footed Albatrosses live in the Hawaiian Islands. Like all species of albatrosses that breed on low lying beaches and slopes, they are highly susceptible to sudden flooding from sea level rise and storm surges. Thousands each year are caught by longline fishing and they are also threatened by pollution and ingesting plastics that float in the ocean.
Climate change may affect Hawksbill Turtles in various ways because they live in different habitats at different stages of life: open ocean, beaches, lagoons and coral reefs. Rising sand temperature of nesting beaches produces more females and other abnormalities in baby turtles. Adults live primarily in coral reefs—threatened by rising ocean temperature and acidity. Since ancient times the Hawksbill has been exploited for its shell. They are also threatened from fisheries by-catch, development, and a high sensitivity to oil spills. The population has decreased by an estimated 80% in the last 100 years.
For decades wild salmon populations have been in decline from human causes: over fishing; habitat degradation—logging, mining, agriculture and dams; pollution; and interaction with hatchery or farmed salmon. These conditions and threats may hinder their ability to adapt to the effects of climate change. Salmon thrive at specific freshwater temperatures—warming air raises water temperature. Early snow melt and increased rains cause physical changes to spawning streams.
Ivory Gulls are almost entirely dependent on sea ice and glaciers for nesting and food foraging. They feed on fish and shellfish that thrive near the edge of the ice, and on the remains of seals left by Polar Bears. Seal blubber is a source of heavy contaminants—Ivory Gull eggs show a higher concentration of mercury and pesticides than any Arctic sea bird. Other threats are illegal hunting and disturbance from diamond mining in the Canadian Arctic.